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Chrystina Häuber

The Horti of Maecenas: Explanations for the maps

(München, December 6th, 2011, Online at: http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/texts/hm_text3.pdf)

Text 3

The Horti of Maecenas: Explanations for the maps

(see also Text 1

The Horti of Maecenas on the Esquiline Hill in Rome

[http:www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/texts/hm_text1.html]

and Text 2

The Horti of Maecenas: the ancient structures and buildings within their area (catalogue nos. 1-58) that are visible on the here published maps, some remarks on the maps, on the database and on the bibliography)

[http:www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/texts/hm_text2.html])

cf. http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/horti/maecenas for the Maps 1-10 mentioned in this text.

 

Introductory remarks

The here published maps are based on the photogrammetric data (scale 1: 500) of the Sovraintendenza ai Beni Culturali (BB.CC.) of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale), which were generously provided by this institution. These data were generated for the "Centro di Documentazione Forma Romae", and are the basis of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae", and are the basis of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae"; cf. <http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/people.html>. The maps were drawn with the Archaeological Information System "AIS ROMA". This information system is based on the object-oriented software "FORTVNA", into which functionalities of 3/4D-GIS are incorporated. This and the "AIS ROMA" Franz Xaver Schütz and I developed for the purpose ourselves since 1994 and 2003 respectively; we are both cooperation partners of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae". The cartographic data of these maps were thus integrated by using GIS-technology. The applied methodology allowed also the integration of cartographic information from Giambattista (G. B.) Nolli's Great Rome map (1748).

Map 1: The area of the later Horti of Maecenas on the Esquiline Hill in Rome and their surroundings during the Republic, with indication of the route of the procession of the Argei (see the orange arrows).

C. Maecenas built his Horti on the >ESQUILINE< in Rome since 38 BC, between the >PORTA ESQUILINA< and the >PORTA QUERQUETULANA< in the >Servian city Wall< of the 4th (and probably already of the 6th century) BC. This area of the Esquiline belonged to the eastern part of the


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>MONS OPPIUS<, comprising its highest hilltop called >FAGUTAL<. These Horti were located inside and outside the city Wall and covered one part of the former Esquiline burial ground (cf. >Paupers' graveyard?<). The area within the Servian city Wall was densely populated by that time (which is not shown on this map), outside the city Wall there were the >CAMPUS ESQUILINUS< and the Esquiline burial ground. The latter is difficult to map in its entirety, which is why a relevant lettering does not appear on this map. At least since the 5th century BC, this area had also been used for agricultural purposes, and there were a Republican >Clay-pit<, contemporary >FIGLINAE< (`the potter's field'), as well as Harenariae (`sand-pits'; scil. pozzolana quarries).

This reconstruction of the procession route of the Argei on the Mons Oppius and the Fagutal was drawn in order to identify the topographical features mentioned by Varro (Ling. 5,45-54) in his account of this procession, because those have to some extent determined the location and the design of the later Horti of Maecenas.

Only topographical features, which can be securely located are integrated into this map. The red areas indicate the ground-plans of architectures which predated the Horti of Maecenas. The sizes and shapes of those red areas do not represent in all cases the original sizes and shapes of the ground-plans of the ancient structures and buildings in question, because many of these were already heavily destroyed when found or documented, or had occurred in building sites, where it had been impossible to document them in their entirety. To allow comparisons with the here published Maps 2-10, in which appear contemporary and later structures and buildings, the ground-plans of the later structures and buildings were drawn in this map with thin black lines. Excavated sections of the Servian city Wall are drawn as 4 m wide light brown lines, the reconstructed course of the Servian city Wall as 4 m wide dark brown lines, ancient roads as 3 m wide dark blue lines, reconstructed ancient roads as dotted green lines. The area of the Republican >Clay-pit< is drawn as a light grey area. The shaded relief was drawn after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748); following recent studies, the relevant cartographic information was at some points corrected.

This map was made with the "AIS ROMA" and is based on the photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). C. Häuber, with technical support by F. X. Schütz, November 2011, reconstruction. The photogrammetric data were generously provided by the Sovraintendenza ai Beni Culturali (BB.CC.) of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). These data were generated for the "Centro di Documentazione Forma Romae", and are the basis of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae", of which C. Häuber and F. X. Schütz are cooperation partners; cf. <http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/people.html>cf. <http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/people.html>. Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG HA 1490/13-1, 13-2) is greatly appreciated.


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Map 2: The area of the later Horti of Maecenas on the Esquiline Hill in Rome during the Republic, with indication of the luci (sacred groves), dating to the archaic/ Republican period

The Horti of C. Maecenas were built since 38 BC between the >Porta Esquilina< and the >Porta Querquetulana< in the >Servian city Wall< of the 4th (and probably already of the 6th century) BC. They comprised areas inside and outside the city Wall and covered one part of the former Esquiline burial ground (cf. >Paupers' graveyard?<). This reconstruction was drawn in order to show the luci of the area in question, which have to some extent determined the location and the design of the later Horti of Maecenas.

Only topographical features, which can be securely located are integrated into this map. The red areas indicate the ground-plans of architectures, which predated the Horti of Maecenas. The sizes and shapes of those red areas do not represent in all cases the original sizes and shapes of the ground-plans of the ancient structures and buildings in question, because many of these were already heavily destroyed when found or documented, or had occurred in building sites, where it had been impossible to document them in their entirety. To allow comparisons with the here published Maps 1; 3-10, in which appear contemporary and later structures and buildings, the ground-plans of the later structures and buildings were drawn on this map with thin black lines. Excavated sections of the Servian city Wall are drawn as 4 m wide light brown lines, the reconstructed course of the Servian city Wall as 4 m wide dark brown lines, ancient roads as 3 m wide dark blue lines, reconstructed ancient roads as dotted green lines, the road >Clivus Pullius/ "Via in Figlinis"/ Vicolo delle Sette Sale< and the >ancient Via Merulana/ VIA IN FIGLINIS<, which in the past have been regarded as the boundaries of the (later) Horti of Maecenas in the west and in the east, are drawn as 3 m wide orange lines. The red dot on Via Mecenate (cf. for that road Map 6) indicates the site of the structure no. >53a site of "Tomba/ Mausoleo": Archaic sanctuary?<. The shaded relief was drawn after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748); following recent studies, the relevant cartographic information was at some points corrected.

This map was made with the "AIS ROMA" and is based on the photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). C. Häuber, with technical support by F. X. Schütz, November 2011, reconstruction. The photogrammetric data were generously provided by the Sovraintendenza ai Beni Culturali (BB.CC.) of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). These data were generated for the "Centro di Documentazione Forma Romae", and are the basis of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae", of which C. Häuber and F. X. Schütz are cooperation partners; cf. <http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/people.html>. Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG HA 1490/13-1, 13-2) is greatly appreciated.

Phase maps


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Map 3: Phase map of the Horti of Maecenas on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, A: the Augustan period

The Horti of C. Maecenas and their setting within adjacent sanctuaries and public buildings. C. Maecenas built these Horti since 38 BC between the >Porta Esquilina< and the >Porta Querquetulana< in the >Servian city Wall< of the 4th (and probably already of the 6th century) BC. They comprised areas inside and outside the city Wall. Maecenas died in 8 BC and bequeathed his Horti to his universal heir, the emperor Augustus.

Only topographical features, which can be securely located are integrated into this map. The red areas indicate ground-plans of structures and buildings, which are datable in the Augustan period, including in some cases Churches (pink areas adjacent to them, and bordered with dotted lines are reconstructed parts of those buildings, grey areas within the ground-plans of ancient buildings are open air spaces; the adjacent light grey areas, bordered by dotted lines, are reconstructed parts of these open air spaces). The sizes and shapes of those red areas do not represent in all cases the original sizes and shapes of the ground-plans of the ancient structures and buildings in question, because many of these were already heavily destroyed when found or documented, or had occurred in building sites where it had been impossible to document them in their entirety.

To allow comparisons with the here published Phase maps of the Horti of Maecenas, nos. 4-6, as well as with the Maps 1; 2; 7-10, the ground-plans of the buildings belonging to the later phases of the Horti of Maecenas, as well as the ground-plans of some post-antique buildings within and near the Horti of Maecenas, are drawn on this map with thin black lines. Excavated sections of the Servian city Wall are drawn as 4 m wide light brown lines, the reconstructed course of the Servian city Wall as 4 m wide dark brown lines, ancient roads as 3 m wide dark blue lines, post-antique roads, copied after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748: cf. Map 10), as 3 m wide light blue lines, reconstructed ancient roads as dotted green lines, cisterns and water basins as blue areas, gardens as green areas.

We know from literary sources that these Horti contained gardens, but their locations are unknown, and it is unfortunately impossible to draw the ground-plan of a "private ancient garden", which the archaeological officer Angelo Pellegrini described in a handwritten report in 1873 (cf. >56 Documented ancient garden<). The raised area between Via Mecenate and Via Guicciardini (cf. for those roads Map 6), by which Maecenas enlarged the plateau of the Oppian Hill (cf. Map 1: >MONS OPPIUS<), is indicated with a light grey area bordered by a dotted line. The shaded relief was drawn after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748).

This map was made with the "AIS ROMA" and is based on the photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). C. Häuber, with technical support by F. X. Schütz, November 2011, reconstruction. The photogrammetric data were generously provided by the Sovraintendenza ai Beni


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Culturali (BB.CC.) of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). These data were generated for the "Centro di Documentazione Forma Romae", and are the basis of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae", of which C. Häuber and F. X. Schütz are cooperation partners; cf. <http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/people.html
>. Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG HA 1490/13-1, 13-2) is greatly appreciated.

Map 4: Phase map of the Horti of Maecenas on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, B: the Imperial period

The Horti of C. Maecenas and their setting within adjacent sanctuaries and public buildings. C. Maecenas built these Horti since 38 BC between the >Porta Esquilina< and the >Porta Querquetulana< in the >Servian city Wall< of the 4th (and probably already of the 6th century) BC. They comprised areas inside and outside the city Wall. Maecenas died in 8 BC and bequeathed his Horti to his universal heir, the emperor Augustus. Of those, who lived there in the Imperial period, we know the later emperor Tiberius, the later emperor Titus, and the orator and tutor to the later emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, M. Cornelius Fronto (AD 95-166), who claimed himself to be the owner of the Horti Maecenatiani.

Only topographical features, which can be securely located are integrated into this map. The red areas indicate ground-plans of structures and buildings, which are datable from the Augustan to the Imperial period, including in some cases Churches (pink areas adjacent to them, and bordered with dotted lines are reconstructed parts of those buildings, grey areas within the ground-plans of ancient buildings are open air spaces; the adjacent light grey areas, bordered by dotted lines, are reconstructed parts of these open air spaces). The sizes and shapes of those red areas do not represent in all cases the original sizes and shapes of the ground-plans of the ancient structures and buildings in question, because many of these were already heavily destroyed when found or documented, or had occurred in building sites, where it had been impossible to document them in their entirety. To allow comparisons with the here published Phase maps of the Horti of Maecenas nos. 3; 5-6, as well as with the Maps 1; 2; 7-10, the ground-plans of the buildings belonging to the late antique phase within the area of the former Horti of Maecenas, as well as those of some post-antique buildings located within and near the Horti of Maecenas, are drawn in this map with thin black lines. Excavated sections of the Servian city Wall are drawn as 4 m wide light brown lines, the reconstructed course of the Servian city Wall as 4 m wide dark brown lines, ancient roads as 3 m wide dark blue lines, post-antique roads, copied after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748: cf. Map 10), as 3 m wide light blue lines, reconstructed ancient roads as dotted green lines, cisterns and water basins as blue areas, gardens as green areas. The raised area between Via Mecenate and Via Guicciardini (cf. for those roads Map 6), by which Maecenas had enlarged the plateau of the Oppian Hill (cf. Map 1: >MONS


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OPPIUS<), is indicated with a light grey area bordered by a dotted line. The shaded relief was drawn after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748).

This map was made with the "AIS ROMA" and is based on the photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). C. Häuber, with technical support by F. X. Schütz, November 2011, reconstruction. The photogrammetric data were generously provided by the Sovraintendenza ai Beni Culturali (BB.CC.) of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). These data were generated for the "Centro di Documentazione Forma Romae", and are the basis of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae", of which C. Häuber and F. X. Schütz are cooperation partners; cf. <http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/people.html>. Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG HA 1490/13-1, 13-2) is greatly appreciated.

Map 5: Phase map of the Horti of Maecenas on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, C: late antiquity

The area of the former Horti of C. Maecenas and their setting within adjacent sanctuaries and public buildings. C. Maecenas had built these Horti since 38 BC between the >Porta Esquilina< and the >Porta Querquetulana< in the >Servian city Wall< of the 4th (and probably already of the 6th century) BC. They comprised areas inside and outside the city Wall. Maecenas died in 8 BC and bequeathed his Horti to his universal heir, the emperor Augustus. Of those, who lived there in the Imperial period, we know the later emperor Tiberius, the later emperor Titus, and the orator and tutor to the later emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, M. Cornelius Fronto (AD 95-166), who claimed himself to be the owner of the Horti Maecenatiani. A water pipe, carrying the name of Severus Alexander (emperor AD 222-235), shows that the building >1-6 Cryptoporticus< was his `private property'. He also commissioned the grandiose building >40; M; NYMPHAEUM ALEXANDRI< to the north of the Horti of Maecenas, the `Trofei di Mario' on Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II (cf. Map 6). It is assumed that in late antiquity (for example contemporary with the construction of the first phase of the Aurelianic Walls, AD 271-275) all the former Horti on the Esquiline Hill were parcelled up to smaller estates. A possessio Micinas Augusti was donated by Constantine the Great to the Basilica of S. Lorenzo, but we do not know the location and size of this estate. A Casa Frontoniana is still mentioned by Magister Gregorius in the 12th century, and during the Middle Ages the area of the former Horti of Maecenas/ Villa Caserta (cf. for the latter Map 6) was called "Massa Juliana".

Only topographical features, which can be securely located are integrated into this map. The red areas indicate ground-plans of structures and buildings, which are datable from the Augustan period to late antiquity, including in some cases Churches (pink areas adjacent to them, and bordered with dotted lines are reconstructed parts of those buildings, grey areas within the ground-plans of ancient buildings are open air spaces; the adjacent light grey areas, bordered by dotted lines, are reconstructed parts of these open air


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spaces). The sizes and shapes of those red areas do not represent in all cases the original sizes and shapes of the ground-plans of the ancient structures and buildings in question, because many of these were already heavily destroyed when found or documented, or had occurred in building sites, where it had been impossible to document them in their entirety. The latest datable building on this map is the >Forum: [of] Petronius Maximus<, which was dedicated to the western Roman Emperor Valentinian III (Flavius Placidus Valentinianus) in 443-445 AD (cf. CIL VI, 1197, 1198). This building had been accomodated within the earlier >"Porticus with Piscina"<, the sanctuary of >Isis et Serapis< in the Augustan >REGIO III< (cf. Map 6), and was located to the southwest of the former Horti of Maecenas.

To allow comparisons with the here published Phase maps of the Horti of Maecenas nos. 3; 4; 6, as well as with the Maps 1; 2; 7-10, the ground-plans of some post-antique buildings, located within and near the area of the former Horti of Maecenas, are drawn on this map with thin black lines. Excavated sections of the Servian city Wall are drawn as 4 m wide light brown lines, the reconstructed course of the Servian city Wall as 4 m wide dark brown lines, ancient roads as 3 m wide dark blue lines, post-antique roads, copied after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748: cf. Map 10), as 3 m wide light blue lines, reconstructed ancient roads as dotted green lines, cisterns and water basins as blue areas, gardens as green areas. The raised area between Via Mecenate and Via Guicciardini (cf. for those roads Map 6), by which Maecenas had enlarged the plateau of the Oppian Hill (cf. Map 1: >MONS OPPIUS<), is indicated with a light grey area bordered by a dotted line. The shaded relief was drawn after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748).

This map was made with the "AIS ROMA" and is based on the photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). C. Häuber, with technical support by F. X. Schütz, November 2011, reconstruction. The photogrammetric data were generously provided by the Sovraintendenza ai Beni Culturali (BB.CC.) of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). These data were generated for the "Centro di Documentazione Forma Romae", and are the basis of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae", of which C. Häuber and F. X. Schütz are cooperation partners; cf. <http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/people.html>. Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG HA 1490/13-1, 13-2) is greatly appreciated.

Map 6: Phase map of the Horti of Maecenas on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, D: diachronic map, containing also those ancient structures which cannot yet be dated, the post-antique toponymy, and the current street plan

Diachronic map of the Horti of Maecenas and their setting within the Augustan Regios, adjacent sanctuaries and public buildings. Only topographical features, which can be securely located are integrated into this map. Red areas represent ground-plans of ancient buildings, including in some cases Churches


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(pink areas adjacent to them, and bordered with dotted lines are reconstructed parts of those buildings, grey areas within the ground-plans of ancient buildings are open air spaces; the adjacent light grey areas, bordered by dotted lines, are reconstructed parts of these open air spaces). The sizes and shapes of those red areas do not represent in all cases the original sizes and shapes of the ground-plans of the ancient structures and buildings in question, because many of these were already heavily destroyed when found or documented, or had occurred in building sites, where it had been impossible to document them in their entirety. This map contains many more red areas (scil. ancient structures and buildings) than Map 5, because it contains also those ancient architectures from G. B. Nolli's Great Rome Map (cf. Map 10), which cannot yet be dated.

Excavated sections of the Servian city Wall are drawn as 4 m wide light brown lines, the reconstructed course of the Servian city Wall as 4 m wide dark brown lines, ancient roads as dark blue lines, post-antique roads, copied after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748), as light blue lines, reconstructed ancient roads as dotted green lines, cisterns and water basins as blue areas, gardens as green areas. The raised area between Via Mecenate and Via Guicciardini, by which Maecenas had enlarged the plateau of the Oppian Hill (cf. Map 1: >MONS OPPIUS<), is indicated with a light grey area bordered by a dotted line, the yellow dot south of the Church of SS. Pietro e Marcellino indicates an excavation area, where >HORREA?< were found, the red dot on Via Mecenate indicates the site of the structure no. >53a site of Archaic sanctuary?<. The shaded relief was drawn after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748).

This map was made with the "AIS ROMA" and is based on the photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). C. Häuber, with technical support by F. X. Schütz, November 2011, reconstruction. The photogrammetric data were generously provided by the Sovraintendenza ai Beni Culturali (BB.CC.) of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). These data were generated for the "Centro di Documentazione Forma Romae", and are the basis of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae", of which C. Häuber and F. X. Schütz are cooperation partners; cf. <http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/people.html>. Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG HA 1490/13-1, 13-2) is greatly appreciated.

Detail maps

Map 7: The Servian city Wall and the sanctuary Isis et Serapis in Regio III in Rome: A site plan and indication of the boundaries of the vineyards (the olive lines), as drawn in the Great Rome map by Giambattista (G. B.) Nolli (1748).

This map is only understandable, when studied together with Maps 8 and 9. It shows the precise boundary of the Horti of Maecenas in the southwest, the here reconstructed course of the Servian city


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Wall. The southwestern boundary of the western part of the >Vigna Pighini<, and the adjacent northeastern boundary of the >Villa d'Aste<, as documented on G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748; cf. here Map 10), still documented as `persistent' lines the former course of the Servian city Wall, which made in this area a curve to the southeast. In order to show this, the boundaries of these estates (the olive lines) are drawn in this map `on top of' the reconstructed course of the Servian city Wall.

Adjacent to the Servian city Wall in the southwest stood a number of sanctuaries: the allegedly mid-Republican (but possibly archaic) shrine of >"MINERVA MEDICA"/ FORTUNA VIRGO< on the former old >Via Curva< (cf. for that road also Map 10; today with different course: >Via Carlo Botta<), and the adjacent >"Porticus with Piscina"<. The latter building accomodated probably in the Neronian period the sanctuary >Isis et Serapis< in the Augustan >Regio III< (cf. Map 6: >REGIO III<), which was in its turn replaced between 443-445 AD by the >Forum: [of] Petronius Maximus<.

This map and Map 8 show the ancient walls and column bases, excavated in the late 19th century and documented in measured drawings, on which the here shown reconstructions (cf. Maps 6 and 9) of the `Porticus with Piscina', of the >Round Nymphaeum/ FONS MUSCOSUS< adjacent to its east Wing, and of the adjacent >Nymphaeum< with rectangular ground-plan are based. In the reconstruction of the `Porticus with Piscina' were additionally integrated the architectural remains of this building that are visible on G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748), comprising that section of its west Wing, which in the `Catasto Pio Gregoriano' (1861) has the no. 361. The substructure on Via Pasquale Villari/ `Terme di Filippo' (cf. Map 9: >Via Pasquale Villari<; >58a-d "Terme di Filippo"<; >a<) was commissioned by Maecenas, who built on its roof terrace the temple of Minerva (Medica), which is recorded by the `Constantinian' regionary catalogues for Regio V (cf. Map 9: >R. V<). Remains of this temple were documented on old maps, the remains of its ground-plan, which appear on Maps 1-9, were copied from G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748). This temple served as Casino in the Vigna Muti-Papazzuri/ Cicolini and survives today in the Convento delle Suore del Buon e Perpetuo Soccorso (cf. Map 9: >Temple: MINERVA MEDICA<).

Only topographical features, which can be securely located are integrated into this map. Red areas represent ground-plans of ancient buildings (pink areas adjacent to them, and bordered with dotted lines are reconstructed parts of those buildings, grey areas within the ground-plans of ancient buildings are open air spaces; the adjacent light grey areas, bordered by dotted lines, are reconstructed parts of these open air spaces). The sizes and shapes of those red areas do not represent in all cases the original sizes and shapes of the ground-plans of the ancient structures and buildings in question, because many of these were already heavily destroyed when found or documented, or had occurred in building sites, where it had been impossible to document them in their entirety. Excavated sections of the Servian city Wall are drawn as 4 m wide light brown lines, the reconstructed course of the Servian city Wall as 4 m wide dark brown lines,


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ancient roads as dark blue lines, post-antique roads, copied after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748; cf. Map 10), as light blue lines, reconstructed ancient roads as dotted green lines. The raised area between Via Mecenate and Via Guicciardini (cf. for those roads Map 9), by which Maecenas had enlarged the plateau of the Oppian Hill (cf. Map 1: >MONS OPPIUS<), is indicated with a light grey area bordered by a dotted line. The shaded relief was drawn after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748).

This map was made with the "AIS ROMA" and is based on the photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). C. Häuber, with technical support by F. X. Schütz, November 2011, reconstruction. The photogrammetric data were generously provided by the Sovraintendenza ai Beni Culturali (BB.CC.) of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). These data were generated for the "Centro di Documentazione Forma Romae", and are the basis of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae", of which C. Häuber and F. X. Schütz are cooperation partners; cf. <http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/people.html>. Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG HA 1490/13-1, 13-2) is greatly appreciated.

Map 8: The Servian city Wall and the sanctuary Isis et Serapis in Regio III in Rome: B site plan and selected current buildings (the thin black lines), copied after the photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now Roma Capitale).

This map is only understandable, when studied together with Maps 7 and 9. It was drawn in order to explore the possible connection between two ancient buildings, the sanctuary of >ISIS ET SERAPIS<; >"Porticus with Piscina"<, which was later replaced by the >FORUM: [of] PETRONIUS MAXIMUS< (cf. Map 9), and a previously ignored Hadrianic building, which stood immediately to the south of the latter, in the former >Vigna XII Apostoli/ Reinach< (cf. Map 9: >ISIS ET SERAPIS REGIO III/ FORUM: PETRONIUS MAXIMUS?<). On Giovanni Battista Falda's bird's eye view map of Rome (1676) appears to the south of the terrace of the Oppian (cf. Map 1: >MONS OPPIUS<), on which the `Porticus with Piscina' once stood, a retaining wall with 6 buttresses. Those are drawn in Maps 6-9 as 6 short black lines to the south of the `Porticus with Piscina' (black, because we cannot be sure that they were ancient). Those `buttresses', which could in theory also have been architectural remains of the former Hadrianic building in the former Vigna XII Apostoli/ Reinach, survive today in 6 parallel parcels immediately to the south of Via Ruggero Bonghi (cf. for that road Map 9). I drew in Maps 6-10 Falda's above mentioned retaining wall after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748), who omitted those `buttresses', but Nolli's drawing of this wall helps to locate the `Porticus with Piscina' firmly on the ground.

Only topographical features, which can be securely located are integrated into this map. Red areas represent ground-plans of ancient buildings (pink areas adjacent to them, and bordered with dotted lines


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are reconstructed parts of those buildings, grey areas within the ground-plans of ancient buildings are open air spaces; the adjacent light grey areas, bordered by dotted lines, are reconstructed parts of these open air spaces). The sizes and shapes of those red areas do not represent in all cases the original sizes and shapes of the ground-plans of the ancient structures and buildings in question, because many of these were already heavily destroyed when found or documented, or had occurred in building sites, where it had been impossible to document them in their entirety. Excavated sections of the Servian city Wall are drawn as 4 m wide light brown lines, the reconstructed course of the Servian city Wall as 4 m wide dark brown lines, ancient roads as dark blue lines, post-antique roads, copied after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748; cf. Map 10), as light blue lines, reconstructed ancient roads as dotted green lines. The raised area between Via Mecenate and Via Guicciardini (cf. for those roads Map 9), by which Maecenas had enlarged the plateau of the Oppian Hill (cf. Map 1: >MONS OPPIUS<), is indicated with a light grey area bordered by a dotted line. This map contains also the ground-plans of selected parcels and current buildings (the thin black lines), copied after the photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now Roma Capitale). The shaded relief was drawn after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748).

This map was made with the "AIS ROMA" and is based on the photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). C. Häuber, with technical support by F. X. Schütz, November 2011, reconstruction. The photogrammetric data were generously provided by the Sovraintendenza ai Beni Culturali (BB.CC.) of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). These data were generated for the "Centro di Documentazione Forma Romae", and are the basis of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae", of which C. Häuber and F. X. Schütz are cooperation partners; cf. <http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/people.html>. Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG HA 1490/13-1, 13-2) is greatly appreciated.

Map 9: The Servian city Wall and the sanctuary Isis et Serapis in Regio III in Rome: C: diachronic map (detail of Map 6), containing also the post-antique toponymy, and the current street plan.

Diachronic map of the sanctuaries and public buildings, which were adjacent to the Horti of Maecenas in the southwest. Only topographical features, which can be securely located are integrated into this map. Red areas represent ground-plans of ancient buildings, including in some cases Churches (pink areas adjacent to them, and bordered with dotted lines are reconstructed parts of those buildings, grey areas within the ground-plans of ancient buildings are open air spaces; the adjacent light grey areas, bordered by dotted lines, are reconstructed parts of these open air spaces). The sizes and shapes of those red areas do not represent in all cases the original sizes and shapes of the ground-plans of the ancient structures and buildings in question, because many of these were already heavily destroyed when found or


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documented, or had occurred in building sites, where it had been impossible to document them in their entirety.

Excavated sections of the Servian city Wall are drawn as 4 m wide light brown lines, the reconstructed course of the Servian city Wall as 4 m wide dark brown lines, ancient roads as dark blue lines, post-antique roads, copied after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748), as light blue lines, reconstructed ancient roads as dotted green lines, cisterns and water basins as blue areas, gardens as green areas. The raised area between Via Mecenate and Via Guicciardini, by which Maecenas had enlarged the plateau of the Oppian Hill (cf. Map 1: >MONS OPPIUS<), is indicated with a light grey area bordered by a dotted line, the yellow dot south of the Church of SS. Pietro e Marcellino indicates an excavation area, where >HORREA?< were found, the red dot on Via Mecenate indicates the site of the structure no. >53a site of Archaic sanctuary?<. The shaded relief was drawn after G. B. Nolli's Great Rome map (1748).

This map was made with the "AIS ROMA" and is based on the photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). C. Häuber, with technical support by F. X. Schütz, November 2011, reconstruction. The photogrammetric data were generously provided by the Sovraintendenza ai Beni Culturali (BB.CC.) of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). These data were generated for the "Centro di Documentazione Forma Romae", and are the basis of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae", of which C. Häuber and F. X. Schütz are cooperation partners; cf. <http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/people.html>. Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG HA 1490/13-1, 13-2) is greatly appreciated.

Map 10: The area of the former Horti of Maecenas on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, with indication of the vineyards (the dark blue lines), as drawn in the Great Rome map by Giambattista (G. B.) Nolli (1748)

Only topographical features, which can be securely located are integrated into this map. The borders of the vineyards are indicated with blue lines, the ground-plans of ancient buildings within these vineyards are indicated with thin grey lines, ground-plans of ancient buildings outside the area of the mapped vineyards with light grey areas (the dark grey areas within the ground-plans of those buildings indicate open air spaces), roads outside the area of the mapped vineyards with olive lines, the ground-plans of post-antique buildings are drawn with thin black lines, excavated sections of the Servian city Wall with 4 m wide light brown lines.

The yellow area on the northeast side of the >Via Curva< indicates a substructure with a building standing on its roof terrace. Nolli characterized this building as ancient, but did not label it. At his time it was used as the Villa building of the >Villa d'Aste<. In the 19th century, this building accomodated a Capuchin monastery (cf. Map 9: >57; 364-366 Capuchin monastery<), which had the following mailing address: Via delle Sette Sale no. 8. The former `Villa d'Aste', which at a later stage had been called `Villa


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Capaccini', was at that time called `Vigna dei Cappuccini' (cf. Map 9: >Villa d'Aste/ Capaccini/ Vigna dei Cappuccini<). In order to avoid a confusion with a contemporary road, which was likewise called `Via delle Sette Sale' (cf. on this map: >Via d. Sette Sale<), the road, on which the former Capuchin monastery stood, is called on Maps 1-6; 9-10 `Vicolo delle Sette Sale' instead (which was one of the many contemporary names of this road). The black arrow, appearing on this map at the `Vicolo delle Sette Sale', points to the entrance of the Vigna dei Cappuccini at the site `Vicolo delle Sette Sale no. 8'.

This map was made with the "AIS ROMA" and is based on the photogrammetric data of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). C. Häuber, with technical support by F. X. Schütz, November 2011, reconstruction. The photogrammetric data were generously provided by the Sovraintendenza ai Beni Culturali (BB.CC.) of the Comune di Roma (now: Roma Capitale). These data were generated for the "Centro di Documentazione Forma Romae", and are the basis of the project "Nuova Forma Urbis Romae", of which C. Häuber and F. X. Schütz are cooperation partners; cf. <http://www.rom.geographie.uni-muenchen.de/people.html>. Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG HA 1490/13-1, 13-2) is greatly appreciated.